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[Morphological Forms]


The acreage of Turkish lands resembling a rectangle is 814,578 square kilometer. Turkey has vaster territories than all of its neighbours other than Iran and all the European countries except Russian Federation.

The territories in Europe forming a three percentage part of its acreage, is known as Thrace, and the territories in Asia forming a ninety-seven percentage part of its acreage is known as Anatolia.

The length of Turkey’s land borders is 2,875 kilometers and the length of its sea borders is 8,333 kilometers. The width of the country is approximately 550 kilometers, while it length is around 1,500 kilometers.

Turkey is located between 36-42 degrees North latitude and between 26-45 degrees East longitude. There is a time difference of 76 minutes between the east and the west.

Turkey is a high and mountainous country with its morphological forms in every kind and age in geological terms. With its average elevation reaching 1,132 m, Turkey is even higher than Asia (1010 m), which is the highest of the continents.

The country is surrounded by high mountains on its north and its south. Northern Anatolia Mountains stretching along the Black Sea in the north and Taurus Mountains in the south determine its characteristic altitude of Turkey. Ilgaz and Koroglu Mountains follow Kackar Mountain, which is the highest point of Northern Anatolia Mountains. In the Marmara region are there Samanli Mountains, Uludag, Istranca Mountains and Tekirdag; in the Aegean region Kozak, Yunt and Aydin Mountains; in the Central Anatolia region Kizildag, Erciyes, Hasan Dagi, Idris, Elmadag and Ayas Mountains; in the Southeastern Anatolia region Karacadag, Raman and Sof Mountains. Agri Mountain of 5,165 meters, which is the highest mountain in Turkey, and Suphan Mountain, which is an inactive volcanic mountain near Agri Mountain, and Nemrut and Alacadag are located in Eastern Anatolia Region.

With its seas, rivers and plains, Turkey is rich in terms of fields favourable to agriculture and stock-breeding. The mountain ranges in the north and south are separated from each other with vast plains. The most fertile plains are Bafra, Carsamba and Merzifon Plains in the Black Sea Region; Konya Plains in the Central Anatolia Region; Cukurova in the Mediterranean Region; Mus Plains in the Southeastern Anatolia Region; Bakircay, Gediz, Large and Small Menderes Plains in the Aegean Region. Turkey is located on Alp-Himalaya belt, which is one of the important earthquake belts in the world, and eight big earthquakes have occurred along the North Anatolia fault since 1939.

Rivers and Lakes

Turkey is also among the countries rich in rivers and lakes. The Black Sea River Basin is the largest one among the river basins which the rivers high in the potential of energy productions head for. The rivers pouring into the Black Sea are Sakarya (824 km), Filyos Stream, Bartin Stream, the Yesilirmak River, the Kizilirmak River (1355 km) and Coruh River. Susurluk and Gonen Stream are poured into the Marmara Sea; Bakircay, Gediz, Large Menderes, Small Menderes and Meric into the Aegean Sea; Dalaman Stream, Manavgat Stream, Aksu, Goksu, Seyhan, Ceyhan and Asi Rivers into the Mediterranean Sea.

Aras, Kura, Arpacay, Firat, Dicle, Coruh River rise in Turkey and are poured into the sea in the foreign countries. The 1,263 km part of the Firat River and the 523 km of the Dicle River flow through Turkey. The large part of both these rivers flow through foreign countries and these rivers send their waters into Basra’s Gulf.

There are a number of small and large natural lakes and dam lakes in Turkey. The eleven percentage part of its acreage is covered with lakes and swamps. Most of these lakes are concentrated in the Marmara Region, the Central Anatolia Region, Eastern Anatolia Region and the Mediterranean Region. The largest one of natural lakes is Van Lake in the Eastern Anatolia Region, with its size of 3,713 square kilometer and with its depth of 451 m. Ercek, Cildir and Hazar Lakes are also situated in the Eastern Anatolia Region, which is a rich region in lakes. The main lakes in ‘Lakes Region’ in the West Taurus Mountains are Beysehir and Egirdir Lakes and Acigol and Burdur Lakes, whose waters are bitter. Around the Marmara Sea, there are Sapanca, Iznik, Ulubat, Manyas, Terkos, Kucukcekmece and Buyukcekmece Lakes. The lakes in the Central Anatolia Region are shallow and very salty. Tuz Lake of 1500 square kilometer, the second largest lake in the country, and Aksehir and Eber Lakes are also located in this region.

Important Mountains, Rivers, Lakes and Islands

Large Agri Mountain: 5.137 m
Suphan Mountain: 4.058 m
Kackar Mountain: 3.932 m
Erciyes Mountain: 3.917 m
Kalkanli Mountain: 2.652 m
Uludag: 2.543 m

Kizilirmak: 1.355 km
Firat: 1.263 km
Sakarya: 824 km
Aras: 548 km
Dicle: 523 km
Yeşilirmak: 519 km
Ceyhan: 509 km

Van Lake: 3.713 km²
Tuz Lake: 1.500 km²
Beysehir Lake: 656 km²
Egirdir Lake: 468 km²

Dam Lakes
Ataturk Dam Lake: 817 km²
Keban Dam Lake: 675 km²
Karakaya Dam Lake: 268 km²
Hirfanli Dam Lake: 263 km²
Altinkaya Dam Lake:118 km²

Gökceada: 279 km²
Marmara Island: 117 km²
Bozcaada: 36 km²
İmrali Island: 9.9 km²