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Western affects on Ottoman music began to be seen toward the mid 19th century and this affect was strengthened toward the end of the century and efforts to change the Ottoman music which was generally monophonic into a polyphonic music began.

After the Declaration of the Republic in 1923, Cemal Resid (REY) who was receiving musical education in Europe at that time returned to Turkey and became a teacher at a musical school founded in Istanbul. Meanwhile, some skilled youngsters were sent to various cities of Europe in order to receive musical education by the Republican Administration. With the arrival of these youngsters to the fatherland, the group that laid the foundation of Modern Polyphonic Turkish Music and that was called Turk Besleri (Turkish Quintet) later on. The common aim of this group was to bring about a modern, polyphonic and new structure within Western Artistic Music values of whose education they received by using traditional Turkish Musical subjects.

The stuff known as Turkish Besleri (the Turkish Quintet) is composed of Cemal Resit Rey, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Hasan Ferit Alnar, Ahmet Adnan Saygun and Necil Kazım Akses. After Turkish Besleri (the Turkish Quintet) Nuri Sami Koral, Kemal Ilerici, Ekrem Zeki Un, Bulent Tarcan as the second generation; Sabahattin Kalender, Nevit Kodalli, Ferit Tuzun, Ilhan Usmanbas, Bulent Arel, Ilhan Mimaroglu as the third generation; Muammer Sun, Cenan Akin, Cengiz Tanc, Kemal Sunder, Ilhan Baran, Yalcin Tura, Ali Dogan Sinangil as the fourth generation gave products. After these generations or with these generations, composers whose number is increasing continue to produce still in this field.