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[Folk Arts] [Plastic folk arts]


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Stone work has been one of the art branches developed with respect to architecture. In the walls of the structures, portals, column heads, niches, minaret balconies, drinking fountains, public fountains and fountains, you can see the samples of stone work. Decorations were made on the stone by the techniques of low and high relief, engraving and scrapping.

Especially in the age of Anatolian Seljuks, the most beautiful samples of stone decorating were produced. Anatolian Seljuks applied the decorating art, which the, Great Seljuks applied on bricks, on stone. They embroidered fine geometric and herbal decorative items and scripture on stone. Especially arrangements forming compositions on portals are interesting. A large border surrounds the portal from sides and above. The deep entrance niche of the portal is covered with mukamas coating. On some structures, figures of life tree, animals, humans and angels based on Shaman belief are observed. Especially human and animal figures in Konya Castle are rare samples. The portals of the monuments like Konya Ince Minareli Madrasah , Sivas Gok Madrasah, Sivas Cifte Minareli Madrasah, Sivas Buruciye Madrasah, Erzurum Cifte Minareli Madrasah, Konya Sahip Ata Mosque are the most beautiful samples of this period. Divrigi Ulu Mosque and Nursing Home, which were built under the administration of Mengucuk, have the most genuine samples of stone work.

During Sultanates period, especially in Central and Eastern Anatolia, stone decorating tradition of Seljuk age went on. In Ottoman age, however, plainness dominated on exteriors. But, it is again possible to see structure epigraphs, columns, minarets, indoor decorations, epitaphs, drinking and public fountains.

Also by embroidering the natural-ready stones, the most beautiful samples of the hand work were produced. Jewelry, chaplets, pipes, canes show the fine marks of this stone craftsmanship.

Although it seldom exists on the world, meerschaum , which exists in vast amount near Eskisehir, is used to produce pipes, cigarette holders, chaplets and jewelry. This stone, which is white in color and is porous, has the characteristic of being easily embroidered. Pipes made of meerschaum, which get brown by absorbing the tobacco and the smoke, are rather famous.

Oltu stone is another stone which we frequently see in handworks. This stone, which is black in color and is bright, has the characteristic of being easily polished. Therefore, it has been a preferable stone since very old times; it has been used for producing jewelry like beads, pendants, necklaces and chaplets and cigarette. This stone, which is also known as black amber, is mostly found in Oltu district of province Erzurum, in Bayburt and Haymana of Ankara.