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PAINTING ART IN TURKEY


Turkish Painting Art in the Westernizing Period


The period reaching over to the first half of the 18th century till the beginning of the second constitutional monarchy in which the Ottoman’s began to take steps with the need of benefiting from the knowledge and technology of the West, is generally defined as the ‘Westernizing Period’. In the Westernizing period, important changes in every field of Ottoman culture and art have been experienced, and new forms and content analysis were reached with the patterns from the West, taken as models. The West style, perspectived painting intellect starting replacing the traditional Ottoman portraying art, and as for the raising of Turkish painters were able to get materialized approximately after a half century preparation phase, in the middle of the 19th century.

In the Westernizing period in which the Ottoman Palace started to get familiar with the West culture and lifestyle, mostly in the 19th century, the Ottoman Palace met and got interested in the West style painting with the mediation of foreign and non-Muslim artists.

Beyond the intellectual interest, the Ottoman Palace in one meaning has comprehended this painting understanding as a natural need of especially the newness movements of the military service and education fields. In the West styled painting art, illusions which can reflect figure and objects in two dimensioned surface with their volume values are used. In the same way, the place surrounding the figures and objects; perspective practices reflecting as giving a profundity perception on the two dimensioned surface are applied. A painting styled like this, has the visual presentation possibilities that can be useful in many fields.

Either as a natural extension of the Ottoman’s cultural changing period, and the prevalent new painting intellect as the need of the Ottoman innovation movements, it has seen that it firstly has taken place in the military service education programs. Consequently Turkish paintings’ (art of drawing) first representatives were soldier rooted artists educated at these schools. The Works of art of Ferik Ibrahim Pahsa, Ferik Tevfik Pahsa, and Husnu Yusuf are accepted the first generation painters whose dates of birth are approximately suited in the beginning years of 1820s seldom reached today, or never could reach.

Later, Osman Hamdi Bey, Seker Ahmet Pahsa, and Suleyman Seyyid whose dates of birth are in 1840s, who are the second generation artists and can be counted as the first representatives in the real of quality and quantity in Turkish art of draw. They gave importance mostly to stil life (naturmort) and landscape painting (panorama) in their classis- academic kinds of paintings. Whereas figure has little taken place in the landscape painting (panorama). In each of the artists who continued their art education in Paris in the years of 1860’s only Osman Hamdi Bey, was not graduated from a military school. He produced works of art as a kind of answer to the Western orientalists’ view to different cultures and to Ottomans, by bringing figure to importance in his paintings. His painting called ‘From The Harem’ shows the harem reality with all its nakedness contrary to Western orientalists who reduce woman into a sexual object in a mystical atmosphere. Osman Hamdi Bey also found the ‘Old Work of Art Regulations’ an archeolog, found the Alexandria sarcophagus at the end of the excavation, he made and he built the Archeology Museum. His most important contribution to the art environment is, building the Fine Arts Academy (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi Ali). This school protected its peculiarities being the most important institution in the developments of art in Turkey for long years.

Seker Ahmet Pasha from this generation did the first important interfere to make art become widespread in the last term of the Ottomans, preparing exhibitions in 1874 and 1875 where foreign, non- Muslim and Turkish artists joined.

The artist also settles the bases of the palace collection by buying many works of art for the Dolmabahce Palace. The light in Suleyman Seyyid paintings attracts attention with its sensitiveness. At the same time, Suleyman Seyyid and Osman Hamdi Bey contributed in educating the next generation as they were also educators.

The following third generation Turkish artists with the dates of birth as the 1860s, have been sourcing an increasing production potential since they were much more in number. Between them, names like Huseying Zekai Pahsa, Ahmet Ziya Akbulut, (Martyr) Hasan Riza and Hodja Ali Riza are attracting attention. As giving importance to Panorama and still life (naturmort) subjects, this generation’s figures gain more importance. Halil Pasha, as an artist who had been in Paris in the 1880s, was one of the names who settled light sensitiveness in Turkish paintings. Hodja Ali Riza who acquired the nature as a guide and loves to work in open air, also united a similar sensitiveness with strong design intellect. Both artists have produced high level paintings and functioned as a bridge between classic-academic intellect and impressionistic style.

Second and third generation Turkish artists have taken place in the Istanbul Room exhibition which was arranged between the years 1901-1903.

The generation who brought the impressionist style with the dates of birth who point the 1880s and their raising periods timely in the second monarchy, are formed of the names Ibrahim Cali, Hikmet Onat, Nazmi Ziya, Namik Ismail, Feyhaman Duran, Avni Lifij, Sami Yetik, Mehmet Ali Laga. In a period just after their graduation, with the effect of monarchy which brought freedom environment and with the support of Sehzade (prince) Abdulmecit who also was an artist, they set an association under the name of Ottoman Painter Society in the year 1909. This first artist union in the Turkish art went on their activities in the republic period later as Fine Arts Union. This generation’s artists also published periodical ‘the Ottoman Painter Union and Newspaper’ for a while which was heavily about the plastic arts field. These young painters of the Monarchy period, sequently went to Europe between 1910-1914. They especially went to Paris to see the Cormon atelier in Academie Julian and adopted the impressionist intellect. Since each of them came back in the year 1914 when First World War was begun, they were named as Generation 14.

When they were back in the country, some of them who went to the fronts, stil continued their activities and opened the first Galatasaray exhibitions of Fine Arts union in 1916 which would continue for long years. This exhibition repeated in Ankara after the declaration of the Republic in 1923 and till the 1950s it has been the most attractive activity.

Whereas in 1917 in the First World War period to the purpose of preparing exhibitions with allied countries and making propaganda trough art, a big wooden atelier had been built in the Sisli district. It has been asked to a group of artist where most of them were from Generation 14, to make paintings subjected war. As a result of this enterprise named as Sisli Atelier, many paintings which reflect the war with all its characteristics have been produced and these are exhibited in Vienna. But the exhibition aimed to be done in Berlin has not come to be true.

The Generation 14 Artists brought Turkish Painting the impressionist intellect in 1910s which was developing in the 1880s in Paris. Thus, the open air working discipline and light sensitiveness which began with Suleyman Seyyid and continued with Halil Pasha and Hoca Ali Riza, have become art discipline with this generation. They have produced many Istanbul paintings especially by working in open air and brought up a kind of ‘Istanbul Paint’ approach. They successfully took charge interior place, naturmort (stil life), portrait and especially nude subjects that entered Turkish painting with this generation.

This generation artists who continued producing both in Monarchy and Republic periods have had a privileged place in the Turkish painting, contributed forming a formal art view in the first years of the Republic. They tried to maket he society to love art through Galatasaray exhibitions and have initiated educating next generation artists by taking place in the academy’s education cadres.

With this generation women painters got an active position in Turkish painting rich families’ daughters’ Mufide Kadri and Mihri Musfik who began painting by taking special lessons are known as the first woman painters. Mihri Musfik with her brave personality, has provided establishing an art academy for girls in 1914 and has become the first director of the school. Inas Sanayi-i Nefise School initiated educating many women painters and with the coming of Republic, it closed after the removal of man-woman discrimination was removed.

Turkish Painting Art in the First Years of the Republic


With the declaration of Republic, the government cadres (positions) under the leadership of Ataturk, have brought up the aim of becoming contemporary in every field. But they comprehended the necessity of not being a colony of the West while benefiting from the West’s contemporary institution and technologies. Bringing up a cultural identity is compulsory fort his; therefore they have important expectations from arts. New, contemporary but at the same time having an art expectation which is national. Art has been supported young people, young people have sent abroad since 1924. Just in 1923 the young artists formed an artist union called ‘New Painting association’ and put effort to bring up a manner exceeding the art intellect of the previous generation. However, this artist association has dispersed when artists went abroad with scholarship. Republic term’s first generation artists have needed to experience the atmosphere and education abroad, to bring up the artistic innovations that can meet expectations of the Republic ideals. Ali Celebi and Zeki Kocamemi who got educated in Hofmann atelir in Munchen, Cevat Dereli, Muhittin Sebati, Cemal Tollu, Nurullah Berk, Zeki Faik Izer, Bedri Rahmi Eyupoglu and others who most got educated in Lhote and Leger ateliers started to come back , from the beginning of 1927. These artists got affected from different sides of the trends like Cubism, Fauvism, and Constructivism which were dominant in the West art in the 20th century. Furthermore, in their arts they brought up Lhote and Leger affected approached in a more important position which are a kind of synthesis of these styles.

This first term artists who were born in the 1900s and formed Turkish art’s fourth generation of the Republic , came together under the name of Independent Painters and Sculptors Union in 1929 when they came back to the country and arranged effective exhibitions in Istanbul and various towns of Anatolia. This artist union has been the first representatives of a new contemporary intellect of Turkish Painting which develops with the Republic term.

After them, in 1933 which is timely the 10th year of the Republic, ‘d Group’ which was built by six young artists brought up similar styled approaches and set motion to the art environment through the exhibitions they opened.

The 10th year of the Republic is at the same time the turning point in which the government put effort to support art more systematically. The revolution exhibitions which the first was made in 1933 and continued four times more till 1936, was the way of expression of the government for their expectations from the artists working appropriately like the government modern art thought, getting along with the content of liberation war and Republic revolutions. In the scope of revolution exhibition, sometimes the content did not conform with the exhibition’s content and although sometimes Works of art have been made with force such as the content expectations, some of them have been top works.

Other activities of the government to support art were providing a determined number of artist to make paintings reflecting country realities and views through traveling various country environs every year. These activities which continued between 938-1944 were performed through public houses. In this way, both material support to the artists has been provided and entering of local components in the contemporary art has been aimed.

Further, the artists working in various environs of Anatolia would instill the public painting love. As the result of this activity, a great collection which subjects all parts of the country that can be evaluated by both artists, society and from the view of the government has been obtained. During the country trips which the first one was made in 1938, the Works produced by the artists have been bought firstly by C.H.P (government party) and by various organizations like Ministry of Education. The collection as a result of this practice was dispersed after the closing of public houses in 1952 and today most of the paintings are lost.

After the practices of the traveling artists, Government Painting and Sculpture Collection which brought aliveness to the art environment of the war years came to agenda. This exhibition activity which was pretty long-lasting and consistent contrary on the others, has sourced an important environment fort he long term artists. The support of government from now on will be carried out from the frame of this activity. The exhibition planned to open every year in Republic Bairam (Fest) come to be true in 1939. The exhibition that continued its importance till the 1950s, continued till today by losing its aliveness. However, especially in the war years it has filled a big blank and carried importance. Government Painting and Sculpture exhibitions have been the only activity where artists from every generation and intellect could be in an environment, exhibit their Works, and present their products to the interest of receiver positioned official organizations.

In 1937 starting evaluating one of the Dolmabahce Palace’s joint building as Painting and Sculpture Museum in Istanbul, has been another important investment of government made to art.

Turkish Painting Art in Second World War Years and After


At the end of the 1930s, there have been some developments which directly affected the art environment. In the year 1938, Great Leader Ataturk has died. In art environment where conditions were based to government-artist relationship; the absence of an effective leader who with his personality and the principles he brought up to the young Republic’s every field, would from now on, always been felt.

Ataturk has been directly sourced, putting forward to the development in art field and forming a special sensitiveness in supporting art. While Turkish people deeply felt his absence, on the 3rd of April in 1939, the second world war which shaked the old continent, had begun.

Under these conditions, the struggle of artists became much more difficult, and the initiatives of adoption of art by the public, could not find the possibility to develop. The increasing defense expenses of the government, was a handicap in supporting of art.

As it is seen, during the war years, artists experienced difficulties even in finding the necessary materials needed in their art productions. Although the government brought some of their Works, they were not be able to earn enough to produce new ones.

In the war years, where problems like; some artist forced to go to military, material absence and high inflation stopped art production and under the conditions of restriction of government investment government artist based art environment has entered a new period.

In spite of this, the artists who provided vanguard initiatives in the art field, were the new graduated young people from the Academy. Nuri Iyem, Avni Arbas, Selim Turan, Ferruh Basaga, Fethi Karakas, Agop Arad, Mumtaz Yener, Turgut Atalay and Hasmet Akal who were the Republic’s second generation artists, on their twenties, came together and opened an exhibition in a frame of common aim and view, in Istanbul Beyoglu Matbuat head Office, May 1941.This artists who carried the aim of materializing their art production by getting into the public, sharing their thoughts and lifestyle. They have given a social, realistic direction to their arts, in the Second World War’s depressioned environment. They prepared their first exhibition in Istanbul which is a harbour town through working among seamen. Thus, against the shapeness of the d Group with the social contended paintings, this young generation artist opened their exhibition and as it is understood; they reached in some part, their aims. After this activity called the Harbor exhibition, the artists united under the name of ‘The New Artists ‘have been supported especially by writers and artists outer the Academy. New Artists worked to find the way of existing as an artist through drawing an interval way between art intellect and public realities. In a meaning, by this way, they brought up a manner that comes from the public, and tries to come to an agreement contrary to the artist before them, who worked to impose their art intellect to the society.

1945 is the year which the war ended. The destructive war was over which affected the whole world and firstly Europe, was over. It was a period in which people cured their wounds, went over the horrible events they had lived and settled their inner accounts. On the other hand, the removal of the pressure created by the war brought a freedom atmosphere.

This socio-psychological environment had also affected the artists. The social and economic condition after the war; the struggle to exist as an artist, came to a state in a rash condition. After 1945, as a differentiation than the other periods, increase in personal exhibitions were seen.

The inclination of acting as a group and opening exhibitions which were the general characteristics of the republic’s first years, and partially in the Second World War years, has begun replacing clearly to personal efforts. While the exhibition activities of Fine Arts Union, d Group (they arranged their last exhibition in 1947), New Artists and Turkish Painters and Sculptors Union continued the increasing personal exhibitions were the indicators of the changing of the art environment.

In the tern after the war , a clear thawness has observed in government-artist relationships which carried importance since the first years of the republic. On the other hand, new generation artists raised and they formed their artistic intellect both with the environment they were and with their teachers’ orientation.

Some of them, the artists who were educated in Rahmi Eyuboglu atelier in the Academy, began to arrange exhibitions by uniting under the name of ’They Group’. The Bedri Rahmi intellect which young artists were deeply affected, was adopted also by his student and they begun to exhibit Works of art reflecting their teacher’s effects under the name of ‘’They Group’’.

By this way, it is seen that, these young people have adopted Bedri Rahmi model, to communicate with the public, maket he society love Works of art and to create such an environment.

Bedri Rahmi students who set up the group are; Mustafa Esirkus, Nedim Gunsur, Leyla Gamsiz, Hulusi Sarpturk, Fahrunissa Sonmez, Ivy Stangali and the one who later joined them; Turan Erol, Osman Oral, Fikret Otyam, Orhan Peker, Mehmet Pesen, Adnan Varinca.

The first exhibition of the group opened in the Academy saloons. At the entrance of the exhibition, hanging one side El Greco’s painting’s reproduction and other side an Anatolia pileless carpet, showed the They Group’s general inclination. After the ‘’ New Artists’’ group who tried to make paintings by mixing in the public, in the war years, the ‘’They Group’’ began a search to evaluate public art elements to the structure of West meant painting art.

With the ending of second World War, abstract art became widespread in a reactionist way in whole Europe and USA again, but this time it prevalence as an explosion. Non-figurative abstract painting was begun to present in a rich variety, with an abstract intellect from a beginning point as figure and at the same time it had found expression as geometric or lyric.

In the period when abstract art was becoming widespread in the West, Turkey began to increase again its relationship with outer world. Turkish artists, who were following west art centers closer, gave the first hints of directing to abstract in the end of the 1940s. The start of our artists going abroad, increase of the coming of the exhibitions from abroad, and following foreign publications more easily, have all been effective in the adoption of abstract art in short time.

Names like Selim Turan, Avni Arbas and sculptor Ilhan Korman who went abroad in 1947 and Nejat Melih who already was abroad, have found the opportunity to examine the artistic developments in their places. Later some other artists followed them through short visits.

These developments resulted with the consideration of the first studies regarding the abstract intellect by Turkish artists in a short time. In 1949 painting named as ‘’Love’’ of Ferruh Basaga, which was in the 10th Government Painting and Sculpture Exhibition and got the Ahmet Canakcili reward, was based on an abstraction of a man and woman figure.

The early examples of this abstract intellect which begins from the point of figure, gains importance as a preparation level of abstract painting that would begin to become widespread fastly in the 50s. Artists from the Republic’s first generation such as Sabri Berkel, Hakki Anli, Zeki Faik Izer to the names of the term’s young artists such as Adnan Coker, Lutfu Gunay, Ali Durukan who all are named from different generations, have directed to abstract understanding.

Turkish artist who has adopted figurative painting tradition which the West formed it by developing it in hundreds of years, has found the opportunity to be a part of abstract understanding and brought up original approaches, since its early levels.

In the term, when the first practices of abstract art in Turkey were done, activities performed by two important private organization like Maja in Istanbul, and Helikon in Ankara attracts attention. In the same way, it is seen that young artists did not remain behind in some important exhibition initiatives and signed on activities that extend over the edges of organizations. In this meaning, the exhibition arranged by twenty young painters in Istanbul Kuyucu Murata Pasha Madrasah, in April, 1954 is extremely important. Exhibiting their abstract paintings together in the same projects; carries also importance in the view of pointing their place in the development line of Turkish Painting. By young generation artists who are the futures of Turkish painting.

In the same year as this exhibition, September 1954, another important activity was performed in Istanbul. In the painting competition with the subject as ‘’ production’’ performed due to the 10th anniversary of the establishment of Yapi Kredi Bank, a name outside the academy, Aliye Berger’s abstract painting was rewarded as the ‘’first’’ by an international Jury.

A group of artist who none were from the academy, formed a group called ‘’Ceiling floor Painters’’ have carried out many activities during this period.

Although the 1950s heavily reflects a period in which abstract art becomes widespread, the activities of artists from different generations who worked in a figurative style continued. Ali Celebi and Zeki Kocamemi who where a part of first generation artists of the Republic, did not show interest to abstract art. Although some members of ‘’New Artists’’ and ‘’They Group’’ directed to abstract, most of them continued in the figurative understanding. Names like; Neset Gunal, Orhan Peker, Nedim Gunsur, Cihat Burak, Turan Erol are attracting attention as the important representatives of figure painting. Also Avni Arbas and Fikret Mualla who live abroad, are the names that can be considered in this scope.

Besides the political reflection, the 1960 Revolution’s effects on individuals and the society were deeply felt. Other than these different lifestyles shaped by unregulated political and social movements that have been experienced, fast urbanization and unstable income distribution, have formed source to artists to develop new figurative expression forms.

It is seen that, social subjects and the style problems developing in the frame of these, form the center of gravity of directing to figurative. The social contended paintings of Neset Gunal, carries Marks from middle Anatolia nature and lifes are in this meaning attracting attention. Nuri Iyem, Nedim Gunsur, Cihat Burak, Orhan Peker, Turan Erol are attracting attention as the figurative expression’s important representatives.

In the parallel of all the unregulated movements of the last 30 years, Turkish art has been under the influence of different effects. However, despite this, art continued developing and always an art environment has been existed that gives reaction to changing conditions.
Also, the continuous increase of the communication opportunities and new datum of technology and science brought new horizons to artists and the art environment. In the last periods, conditions which surround artists as an individual are valid; Turkish painting’s general appearance is formed of artists from different generation with a production variety in style-subject wealthiness. This appearance in which increasing number of artists and art Works were included, a term characteristic that is hard to evaluate on a mutual denominator appears also with the participation of activities and organizations like; exhibitions, fairs, art magazines and publications, internet, galleries, auctions.

It has to be touched on the activities other than the art fair and important exhibitions that are materialized in the structure of galleries, in the way they contribute to the development of contemporary Turkish art. New Inclination Exhibition which the first one was arranged in 1981 takes its place in internationally qualified Istanbul Biennial during the period in 1989. It is seen that the biennial and art fair which increasingly gives place to concept studies besides painting and sculpture, wrapped in the identity of activities of polarized art approached during the time. Despite this, the role they undertook, of reaching wide viewer mass in both activities and developing society-art relationship, has an importance that can not be discussed.

In this period, in the art environment with all these developments, activities, organizations and formations, artist from different generations and style of work have been effective. Hikmet Onat who died in 1977, is the most senior master, who continued producing his impressionist intellect paintings in this period. By the way, when Hikmet Onat continued producing paintings in his 90s; Burhan Uygur who began arranging exhibitions as a graduate from the academy, was only 28 years old. From the period of 1970s till today, Burhan Dogancay, Ozdemir Altan, Adnan Coker, Komet, Utku Varlik, Omer Uluc were some of the artists who brought up a strong style line. Beside the wealthiness of this generation, there are many artists working in impressionist, surrealistic, photo realistic, cubist, abstract styles. Whatever the conditions are, artists continue producing, and with a continuous increase, he forms a pluralist approach which expresses individual wealthiness.


TURKISH SCULPTURE ART


Turkish Sculpture in the Period before Republic


The sculpture art history in Turkey has begun with the establishment of Fine Art Academy (Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi Ali). Otoman’s who were closed (did not agree) to dimensioned description in social in social tradition, were provided only in the last term in 1883 with the establishment of this school and given place to sculpture department in the school’s program. The school’s first educator was a non-Muslim , Ottoman citizen named Yervant Osgan who studied sculpture education abroad.

Yervant Osgan who was the assistan of Osman Hamdi, took an academic sculpturing education in Italy in Rome Fine Arts Academy and Venedic Rafaello college. Sir Osgan is known as the first Ottoman citizen who went to Europe for sculpture education. He was the only person who could give education in this untouched field. It is seen that in his works, a style in classic intellect which gives nature in details. Besides the little number of sculptors which reached today, he is a very important personality in the view of providing opportunity of raising generation coming after him, through educating as a educator in Fine Arts Academy (Sanayi-I Nefise Mektebi) for 32 years.

His first student Ihsan Ozsoy Has adopted a close style to his educator. As a sculptor and as an educator who transfers the knowledge he learned from his teacher to the next generation, he has taken an important place in the Turkish Sculpture Art.

This term till the Republic, we cab talk about sculptors like Isa Behzat, Mesrur Izzet, Basri and Mehmet Bahri whose little number of works are known. These first artists of Turkish Sculpture adopt academic intellect and a line bound to nature. Again, Mahir Tomruk and Nijad Sirel who rose in this period, purified from details through gradually leaving from this line, and directed to carry a more mass meaning with a clear expression.

Turkish Sculpture in the first year of Republic (Figurative Term)


With the declaration of the Republic, a new term begins in Turkish Sculpture. The government of Turkish Republic decides to construct monuments which most are Ataturk statues with the aim of making the society to adopt the new order. But since there was not a Turkish Sculptor with enough knowledge to work on this subject, these monuments were made by foreigners like Canonica and Krippel.

Whereas in the 1930s the first generation artists of the Republic term who finished their education in the ateliers of masters like Despiau, Gimond or organizations like Ecole des Beaux Arts and Academie Julian abroad and come back to their country, have reached succesfull results in this field. These artists have played an effective role in forming Turkish Sculpture Art till the end of Second World War through various exhbitions, works, and activities. In 1937, putting Belling to the head of Sculpture department in the Academy, has been important in the view of giving a more systematic education. Artists like Ali Hadi Bara, Nusret Suman, Nijad Sirel,, Ratip Asir Acudoglu, Kenan Yontuc, Zuhtu Muridoglu give the most perfect examples of figurative statues in the field of monument, bust, and body statue. Thus, the period that begun with Yervant Osgan, went through a path with a nature dependent style and the time it reached a purifying style dependent on the artists’ interpretation. Between these artists, especially Ali Hadi Bara and Zuhtu Muridoglu have been initiators of raising many numbers of sculptors as educators, besides their succesfull studies. The first statue exhibiton in Turkey was done by Zuhtu Muridoglu in 1932, in Istanbul Regiment Pavilion.

Abstract Term and New Researches


In 949-1950 as a result of new generation artists abroad directed to non figurative statue, both Bara and Muridoglu have adopted this approach in a short time, and put their signs to this new page of Turkish Sculpture Art. In 1947 Ilhan Korman went to Paris and he there got interested in abstract art. Later in 1949 the visit of Ali Hadi Bara and Zuhtu Muridoglu who also felt similar feelings, have formed the development period of Turkish Sculpture Art. In this way, from different generations heavily began searching new forms with new materials and techniques. Mostly they produced non figurative metal statues. After this date, new works of Kuzgun Acar, Sadi Calik, Ilhan Korman, Huseyin Gezer, Ali Teoman Germener, Tamer Basoglu, Zuhtu Muridoglu, and Hadi Bara came up to agenda. Finally it is seen that with both figurative and non figurative studies, plastic values gain importance.

After the 1970s, Turkish Sculpture became open to different experimental approaches. Some of the names of taking place in various biennials and international exhibitons, that gets conspicuous in the near term of Turkish Sculpture are artists like; Mehmet Aksoy, Koray Aris, Saim Bugay; Fusun Onur, Maria Kilicoglu.


GRAPHIC


It can not be said that the graphic Art has a long history in our country. Graphic art has developed after the 1950s in Turkey. Before, however the print works in the Ottoman Empire term can be discussed in this field. In this condition, first printing office (press) and Ibrahim Muteferrika will be the first name coming up to mind . Later in 1796 Muhendishane Printing House, Takvimhane-i Amire in 1831, which printed the first governmental (formal) newspaper Takvim-i Vekayi, again the same year, establishment of the stone printing counter, in the 1880s there have been little advertisements in the printed newspapers. All of these can be told as the leaders of Turkish graphic art.

In the term of republic, the book covers were made as graphic. Ebuzziya Tevfik is te most known person between people who worked in this subject. Before, in the covers of books only calligraphers’ and painters’ names were seen. Later, also caricaturists’ names are met on the book covers. Sedat Simavi, r. Tahir Burak, Ramiz Gokce are between these caricaturists. Munif Fehim has worked on book covers for long years. Whereas Ihap Hulusi and Ali Suavi worked on the same subject in later periods.

Ihap Hulusi Guney is the most important name of postering (Placarding) subject in Turkey in 1925 after his education in Germany, has been the only name in his field till 1960s. In 1932 he laid a base of graphic department in Mithat Ozar Fine Arts Academy.

In 1950s Mesut Manioglu, Selcuk Onal, Fikret Akgun got graduated and gain an important place in this market with different approaches in graphic art subject.

Later, perfect masters became famous with their studies. Between them, there were names like , Emin Barin, Yurdaer Altintas, Mengu Ertel, Erkal Yavi, Bulent Erkmen, Sadi Pektas, Cemalettin Mutver, Aydin Erkmen, Aydin Ulken, Sadik Karamustafa, Fahri Karagozoglu, Abdullah Asci, Savas Cekic, Emre Senan.

Today Graphic art, reached a contemporary level in advertising sector, with enormous developments. This art has become a necessity with its printing techniques and the technology easiness by computer.