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[Anatolian Civilizations] [First settlements in Anatolia]


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Troy is 30 kilometres to the southwest of Canakkale. It is near Tevfikiye village. In Troy, 9 settlement layers were found:

Troy I :3000-2500 B.C.
Troy II : 2500-2300 B.C.
Troy III-V: 2300-1700 B.C.
Troy VI: 1700-1250 B.C.
Troy VII: 1250-1000 B.C.
Troy VIII: 800-85 (Greek)
Troy IX: 85 B.C.- 500 A.D. (Hellenistic-Roman)

Troy’s geographical convenience has made it a popular settlement area for over 3000 years. Trojans lived their lives farming, stockbreeding and doing trade. Wars, earthquakes and fires destroyed Troy many times but the city was repeatedly rebuilt.

TROY I: The first Trojan culture affected a large region: Northwest of Anatolia, southwest of Thrace, İzmir peninsula in south, Myrina, Lesbos and Chios. Troy I was a village fortified with stone city walls. The potter’s wheel was not yet known. In this castle brown earthenware pots were handmade. Pots were not ornate but some handles of jugs were carved in the shape of a human face.

TROY II: The city is surrounded by mud brick city walls perched on stone foundations. The buildings are in a megaron form. This type of structure was very popular in Aegean culture. It consists of a rectangle gallery and an entrance hall in front of it. Megarons are made by mud bricks placed upon stone foundations. Entry is from the narrow side. Some believe that megarons had cradle roofs with triangle shaped pediments. These buildings were prototypes of Greek temples. Wooden pillars were used to support the roofs. At the centre of the gallery, fireplaces were put in order to illuminate and heat up the entire building.

With the city walls, gorgeous megarons and the lower city, the new castle looked like a strong principality.

Blacksmiths used casting and forging techniques.

During this period potter’s wheel was widely used. Long, thin, double handled drinking cups and human face styles were widespread. Ornamentation was rare.

TROY III-V: Characteristics of the previous period continued with small differences. Very few findings could be documented. But fires in western and southern Anatolia and invasions on the Anatolia peninsula made the whole area including Troy unsuitable for settling.

TROY VI: City was surrounded with new walls. Zigzag motifs were used on wall surfaces. The city walls were 4 meters high. They made mud brick bastions on top of them. Mikonos ceramics were in widespread use.

TROY VII: It is a continuation of the previous layer.

Troy’s later settlement layers had Greek, Hellenistic and Roman influences. Troy attracted interest because of its 20 treasures from various periods. Homer wrote about this city in his book Iliad and the Trojan War became a legendary story in the eyes of Europeans.